Mehmet Akif Ersoy'un Hayatı

Doğumu ve Ailesi
Mehmet Âkif Ersoy, 1873 yılının Aralık ayında, İstanbul’un Fatih ilçesinin Sarıgüzel semtinde doğmuştur.

Mehmet Âkif’in babası Mehmet Tâhir Efendi (doğ.1826/öl.1888) ve annesi Emine Şerife Hanım’dır (doğ.1836/öl.1926).

Âkif’in Nuriye adında bir de kız kardeşi olmuştur.
Öğrenimi
Mehmet Âkif, sırasıyla; mahalle mektebi (yuva), ibtidâî (ilkokul), rüşdiye (orta okul) ve mülkiye idâdîsi (lise), Baytar Mektebi’ne (Veterinerlik Fakültesi) devam etti. 1893’te Baytar Mektebi’nin ilk mezunu ve birincisi olarak diploma aldı. Akif; Arapça, Farsça ve Fransızca’yı, edebiyatlarını takip edecek ve tercümeler yapacak kadar iyi öğrenmiştir.

Mehmet Âkif, aynı zamanda çeşitli sporlarla ilgilenmiş; güreş, gülle atma; ata binme ve yüzme sporlarında oldukça başarılı olmuştur.
Memuriyeti ve Diğer Yaptığı İşler
Öğrenimini tamamladıktan sonra, Ziraat Vekâleti Baytarlık Şubesinde göreve başladı. İlk dört sene Rumeli, Anadolu ve Arap bölgelerinde dolaşarak baytarlık yaptı. Yirmi yıllık bir memuriyetten sonra istifa etti.

Öğretmenlik hayatına 1906’da Halkalı Baytar Mektebi’ne “kitâbet-i resmiye” (resmî yazışma usûlü) dersi muallimliği ile başladı. 1908’den sonra ise Edebiyat Fakültesi ile Dârü’l-Hilâfe Medresesi’nde “Osmanlı Edebiyatı” müderrisliğinde bulundu.

Mütareke devrinde, “Darü’l-Hikmetü’l İslâmiyye”de üye ve başkâtip (genel sekreter) olarak çalıştı (Ağustos 1918 – Nisan 1920) ve bu kuruluşun yayın organı olan “Cerîde-i İlmiyye”yi idare etti. Birinci Millet Meclisi’nde Burdur milletvekili olarak görev aldı. Mısır’da Kahire Üniversitesi’nde Türkçe Hocalığı yaptı (1929-1936).

Büyük Millet Meclisi’nin açılışının ertesi günü, 24 Nisan 1920’de Ankara’ya gitmiş, yaptığı çeşitli konuşmalarla Millî Mücâdeleye destek vermiştir. Ardından Eskişehir, Konya, Kastamonu, Burdur, Sandıklı, Dinar, Afyon, Antalya ve çevrelerini dolaşmış, halkı ciddi olarak bilgilendirmiş, böylece milli şuurun artmasını ve mücadeleye katılmalarını sağlamıştır.

Mehmet Âkif’in Burdur’dan mebus seçilmesine, Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın Âkif Bey’i istemesi sebep olmuştur. Ankara’ya 24 Nisan’da gelmiş olan Âkif Bey’in seçilmesi, Paşa’nın 29 Nisan 1920 tarihli bir telgrafı ile Burdur’un bağlı bulunduğu Konya vilâyetinin vali vekili ve kolordu kumandanı olan Albay Fahreddin (Altay) Bey’e bildirilmiştir. Burada yapılan seçim sonucunda en fazla oyu Âkif Bey almıştır.

Bu sırada Sebîlü’r-reşad’ın üç sayısı da Kastamonu’da yayınlanmış ve kendisinin çok önemli olan konuşmalarının bulunduğu bu dergi sayıları, binlerce nüsha bastırılarak Anadolu’ya ve cephelere dağıtılmış; camilerde, derneklerde ve askerî birliklerde okutulmuştur. Mehmet Âkif’in bu konuşmaları, İstiklal Savaşı’mızın niçin, nasıl ve hangi amaçlarla yapıldığını, ilk defa ve içinde yaşayarak anlatan en önemli ve çok kıymetli, tarihî belgelerdir.

İstiklâl Savaşı kazanıldıktan sonra İstanbul’a dönen Mehmet Âkif, 1923 ve 1924 yıllarının kış aylarını Kahire’de geçirdikten sonra, Türkiye’deki siyasî gelişmeler yüzünden, 1925 yılı sonundan itibaren temelli olarak Mısır’a gitmiş, 17 Haziran 1936 tarihine kadar, on buçuk sene orada kalmıştır.
Evliliği
Yirmi beş yaşında iken İsmet Hanım’la evlenen Mehmet Âkif’in üç kızı (Cemile, Feride, Suad) ve iki oğlu (Emin, Tahir) olmuştur.
Hastalığı, Ölümü ve Mezarı
Âkif Bey, son üç yılında Kahire Üniversitesi’nde Türkçe öğretmenliği yapmıştır. Ancak Mısır’da “siroz” hastalığına tutulmuş ve durumu ağırlaşınca, 17 Haziran 1936’da İstanbul’a dönmüştür.

İstanbul’da tedavi olmuşsa da iyileşememiş ve  27 Aralık 1936 tarihinde saat 19.45’te Beyoğlu’ndaki Mısır Apartmanı’nda vefat etmiştir.

Kabri,  Edirnekapısı’ndaki “Şehitlik”te “Mehmet Âkif Ersoy Meydanı”ndadır.

 

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